BOSNJACI IZMEDJU NACIJE I DRZAVE
BOSANSKA NACIJA OBUHVATA SVE DRZAVLJANE BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE,
DAKLE NAJMANJE TRI KONSTITUTIVNA NARODA
Pise: dr Edin Sarcevic
(docent na Pravnom fakultetu u Leipzigu, SR Njemacka.
Predaje Drzavno i Upravno pravo, Opstu teoriju drzave i Filozofiju prava.)
Naucni standardi: Savremeni standardi drzavnopravne znanosti i politicki jezik su jasni: Naciju obrazuju gradjani jedne drzave, narod je zajednica porijekla. Pojmom nacija se, dakle, ukazuje na pravnu vezu covjeka i drzave, tako da samo narodi koji su ustanovili sopstvenu drzavu postaju nacijom. Narod obuhvata zajednicu porijekla, sudbine, zajednicu jezika i vjere, no jedan narod ne mora imati sopstvenu drzavu (Kurdi, Baski, Korzikanci). Nacija je drzavnopravna, narod je kulturoloskobioloska komponenta ljudskog zivota u zajednicama. Ako se jedno s drugim poklapa, problem se ne postavlja. U visenarodnim zajednicama je izostravanje razlike neophodno. Jer, pozivanje na naciju ovdje signalizira narodu da ima "pravo" na drizavu: "Mi smo nacija!" jeste parola naroda koji zele vlastitu drzavu.
...da se osvrnem:
Sa Oxford Dictionary:
• noun a large body of people united by common descent, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular state or territory.
— ORIGIN Latin, from nasci ‘be born’.
Uz svoj postovanje, covjek nije u pravu i zasniva svoj tekst (gdje je objavljen??, htio bih da vidim reference) na zeljama, a ne na stvarnosti.
Rijec 'nacija' ili 'nation' nije termin medjunarodnog prava, odnosno nije definisana.
A distinct group or race of people that share history, traditions and culture.
A group or race of people that share history, traditions and culture, a distinct society.
"A race of men ... an aggregate body of persons, exceeding a single family, who are connected by the ties of a common lineage and perhaps by a common language .... a society of persons occupying a common territory and united under a common government."1
In his 1936 book, Schultz defined a nation as:
"A people which looks upon itself as a politically separate community, has a political individuality, and contrasts itself with other political communities. An important factor .... is the comunity of language; this is, however, not essential and not necessarily resent."
International law often uses the term as if it were synonymous with state as in "United Nations" or 'League of Nations'.
The UN Charter includes a component of self-governance and ignores, within its definition of nation, concepts or units of non-self-governing groups of people.
More recently, the international law has evolved away from the term "nation" as it was commonly known to represent separate countries on thw world map (see old dictionary extract pictured). Conconcurrent with this development, North American Indians bands have enthusiastically adopted the word and commonly refer to themselves as "nations" in order to emphasize their independence; as in the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (at fsin.com) or Cherokee Nation (cherokee.org). This, even through they are usually completely enveloped within an existing state or country for the purposes of international law, and have no independent standing therein but at the same time relying on this consept to seek, from time to time, international status.
In the result, and notwithstanding its prominence in inter-nation-al law, a contemporary definition of "nation" in international law has proven elusive.
One dictionary (Osmanczyk's "Encycolpedia of the UN and International Agremeents") refers to the word as "an international term having no international definition", a rather circular proposition as the definition itself relies heavily on the term, as in "inter-nation-al law"!
"A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things which are realy only one go to make up this soul or spiritial principle. One of these things lies in the past, the other in the present. The one is the possession in common of a rich heritage of memories; and the other is actual agreement, desire to live together, and the will to continue to make the most of the joint inheritance.... The existence of a nation is a daily plebiscite, just as that of individuals is a continual affirmation of life."
John Stuart MIlls, in Representative Government (1861), under the heading of "Nationality":
"A portion of mankind may be said to constitute a nationality if they are united amopngst themselves by common sympathies which do not exist between them and any others - which make them cooperate with each other more willingly than with other people, desire to be under the same government, and desire that it should be government by themselves or a portion of themselves, exclusively."
Compare with state which is now, in international law, the preferred term for an independent country which has standing in international law.
Recimo, u poredjenju sa tim, rijec 'state', odnosno 'drzava' je tacno definisana medjunarodnim pravom:
Sto se tice Ujedinjenih nacija, prvo ako se ne varam cesto se koristi i izrazi 'Ujedinjeni narodi', ali neise....posto tamo pise 'United Nations' da i to obrazlozimo i to deklaracijom o osnivanju UNa, cija Preambula glasi:
The Preamble reads as follows:
WE THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
to regain faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
AND FOR THESE ENDS
to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and
to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and
to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples,
HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS
Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
Dakle, spominju se 'narodi ujedinjenih nacija', a ne drzave (states) koje osnivaju UN.
Dalje se u prvom clanu u tacki 2. jasno kaze:
To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
Da napomenem da pojam 'nacija' ni tada, a ni danas nije definisan medjunardonim pravom, nit je 'medjunarodno pravo' u pravom smislu rijeci tada i postojalo. Tek sa osnivanjem UNa i daljim razvojem kooperacije izmedju drzava, ovakve detaljnije definicije, kao sto je ova za 'drzavu' su uspostavljene.
Dakle, ni u engleskom ni u nasem rijecniku 'nacija' ne znaci 'drzava', niti 'narod koji ima svoju drzavu', a sto je jos vaznije ni u pravnom jeziku rijec 'nation' nije definisana kao drzava, odnosno uopste nije definisana (samo je definisana rijec 'state').
Jos jednom bih molio ako postavljate neki clanak koji nesto usko definise da navedete autora i izvor gdje je isti objavljen.